Posts Tagged ‘History’

Coollattin House

Wednesday, January 6th, 2010

Coollattin House, Co. Wicklow

The history of the Wentworth/Fitzwilliam family in England has been well documented (see our historical overview for a brief summary), but what is less well known is the influence they had on the history of Ireland. As well as the family seat of Wentworth Woodhouse they owned another large house called Malton House (later Coollattin House) in County Wicklow from where they managed their 88,000 acres of Irish lands. They also acquired a number of Irish titles and political positions over the years.

Acknowledgements

Our Coollattin article has been produced thanks largely to the contributions of Jerry Cassidy of Shillelagh who is involved with the golf club who now own and are responsible for the upkeep of the modern-day Coollattin House. Jerry has collected a vast amount of information about the Fitzwiliam family’s presence in the village and in Ireland in general; our thanks to him, and we hope that the articles will be of interest to residents of Wentworth and Shillelagh alike. Should you wish to contact Jerry for further information about Coollattin you can e-mail him at jerry.cassidy@wentworthvillage.net.

The Wentworths and Fitzwilliams in Ireland

The Early Wentworths

Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford (b. 1593, beheaded 1641), is famous for the part he played in the events leading up to the English Civil War, but prior to this he also played a significant role in Irish history.

A close adviser to King Charles, Strafford was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland in 1633. He set about the job with the aim of creating greater prosperity in Ireland and thus (he hoped) greater loyalty to the English Crown. His methods, however, left much to be desired and there was considerable local resentment about the way in which he manipulated the Irish parliament and appropriated lands in the name of the Crown, ostensibly to better the economy of the country by encouraging the English nobility to take up residence there.

Strafford himself purchased the half barony of Shillelagh in 1635 and built a hunting lodge and park (Fairwood) near Coollattin. There are records of his writing to King Charles about the wonderful countryside and hunting in the area, although it is likely that the local O’Byrne clan, whose lands he took over, were less than enthusiastic about his presence in the area.

The remains of Strafford’s hunting lodge and surrouding fortifications still exist at a site know locally as “Black Toms Cellar”. The Earl acquired the nickname “Black Tom” as he was regularly seen in the area wearing black armour and riding a black horse; there is also a “Black Tom’s Tavern” in nearby Tinahely.

Strafford’s son William 2nd Earl of Strafford (1626-1695)went on to build up the family estates in Coollattin. The area is famous for its oak woods and its timbers were sold for use in the construction of Westminster Hall in London as well as parts of Westminster Abbey, King’s College Chapel, Cambridge and the Stadt Hosue in Amsterdam. Even accounting for the higher shipping costs, the cost of felling and preparing timber in Ireland worked out at half the price of producing comparable timber on the Wentworth estates, hence the family’s involvement in the area continued to grow.

On the death of the 2nd Earl the estates passed to his nephew, Thomas Watson Wentworth (1665-1725), whose son Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Malton and 1st Marquis of Rockingham was the father of Lady Ann Wentworth was to go on to unite the Wentworth/Fitzwilliam lines by marrying 3rd Earl Fitzwilliam.

The Early Fitzwilliams

The history of the Fitzwilliam family in Ireland starts with Sir William Fitzwilliam, 1st Earl of Milton (1460-1534). A successful merchant and Alderman of London, Fitzwilliam made numerous land purchases, including the family’s first estates in Ireland. Unlike many other aristocrats of the time Fitzwilliam seems to have built up his fortune by honest hard work and gained significant respect from his peers.

Fitzwilliam’s grandson (also Sir William Fitzwilliam) was the first family member to have significant political influence in Ireland. He was made Lord Deputy of Ireland (shortly after Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford) and was Commander in Chief of the Army. He seems to have lasted longer in the post than Strafford and as a reward his family was granted yet more Irish lands by the King.

By 1620 the family had been granted the title Baron Fitzwilliam of Liffer (the first holder being yet another Sir William Fitzwilliam, great-great-grandson of the 1st Earl) and then in 1716 the 3rd Baron Fitzwilliam (who, as you’ve probably guessed, was also called William) was created 1st Earl Fitzwilliam of Ireland.

The 1st Earl’s grandson (William again!) was not only 3rd Earl Fitzwilliam of Ireland but also became 1st Earl Fitzwilliam of England following his marriage to Lady Ann Wentworth, daughter of the Marquis of Rockingham and heir to the Wentworth Estates, including Wentworth family’s significant Irish landholdings.

The 4th Earl Fitzwilliam of Ireland

William Wentworth Fitzwilliam, the 4th Earl Fitzwilliam of Ireland (or 2nd Earl Fitzwilliam of England) was the first heir to the combined Wentworth/Fitzwilliam family fortune.

It was the 4th Earl who built Collattin House (it was originally called Malton House, presumably after one of his grandfather’s titles as the Earl of Malton). The house was designed by the leading architect John Carr, who was also responsible for the grandiose “stable block” at Wentworth Woodhouse as well as the Keppel’s Column and Mausoleum monuments near Wentworth.

The building was started around 1794 but before completion it was burned down in a rebellion in 1798 (along with 160 other houses in the nearby village of Carnew and several Catholic churches). It isn’t clear if the house was burnt to the ground, but on Lady’s Day in 1798 a carpenter was paid £27 7s 5d and a half pence, even though his work had apparently been destroyed by the rebels. Work resumed again in 1800 and the house was completed in 1807.

As well as rebuilding their house and the village, the Fitzwilliams contributed to the repairs of the Catholic Churches and gave land for other churches (whilst other landlords would not even allow a Catholic church on their estate). Throughout the family’s time in Ireland they did not take sides in the various Irish struggles through the centuries, and perhaps as a consequence their house was left untouched in the last dash for independence.

Around 1780 the Earl sent over an instructor in ploughing from Wentworth to train his Irish tenantry. In 1812 someone called Wakefield wrote “His estate is the best cultivated of all I have seen in Ireland”.

As well as undertaking building and agricultural projects, the 4th Earl was also Lord Lieutenant or Ireland for a short time in 1795. Knowing of the family’s strong Irish connections and relative local popularity, Prime Minister Pitt had sent the Earl to Dublin telling him to appease the Catholic leaders of the day.

On arrival in Dublin, Fitzwilliam set about dismissing senior officials with strong Protestant connections, including Beresford the Commissioner of Customs. This apparently backfired as Beresford then appealed above Fitzilliam’s head directly to Pitt who ordered the reinstatement of the officials; inevitably Fitzwilliam then resigned. Apparently Fitzwilliam’s departure was seen as a major setback by the local population who closed all the shops in Dublin on the day he left, almost as if in mourning. Fitzwilliam and Beresford later met at the Tyburn Turnpike in London for a duel (which fortunately was stopped by the local constable!).

The New Church

Wednesday, January 6th, 2010

For a small village, Wentworth is unusual in that it has two churches – the partly ruined (but still occasionally used) old church and the Victorian new church.

The new church was commissioned in 1872 by the 6th Earl Fitzwilliam at a cost of around £25,000 in memory of his parents. It is dedicated to the Holy Trinity, as was the original church.

The church was designed by the leading Victorian church architect James Loughborough Pearson (who later went on to design Truro Cathedral) and has been described by architectural historian Sir Nikolaus Prevsner as “a very fine, sensitive, and scholary piece of Gothic revival”.

It was built on a grand scale, and its spire of almost 200 feet is visible for miles around. The vast interior can comfortably seat over 500 people, far more than the population of the village either now or at the time it was built! It has a number of interesting architectural features including some impressive stone valuting and two large stained glass windows by Kempe (W) and Clayton and Bell (E). There is also a carved stone reredos depicting the Last Supper which was donated by the 6th Earl’s children to commemorate the Golden Wedding anniversary of the Earl and his wife, Lady Frances Harriet Douglas.

As well as the Sunday and midweek church services, the New Church is often used for art exhibitions and concerts – its excellent acoustics have also made it a popular venue for classical music recording sessions. The church is often open to the public when it is not in use for services; there is no charge to enter but small donations to support the maintenance of the fabric of the building are welcomed.

Sunday Services

Sunday Services are held at 8.15am (Holy Communion), 10.45am (Family Communion – 1st, 3rd and 5th Sundays; Family Service – 2nd Sunday; Matins – 4th Sunday) and 6.30pm (Evensong).

Contact Information

The church has their own website here including service & contact information

Photograph used by kind permission of Daren Loxley. Copyright © 2002 Daren Loxley.

This view of Holy Trinity Parish Church was photographed by Daren Loxley around the time of the 2002 Golden Jubilee celebrations, hence the Union Jack on the spire.

The Old Church

Tuesday, January 5th, 2010

Wentworth Old Church taken in 1909, click for full size.

Wentworth old church is believed to have medieval origins, with mouldings dating back to the late 13th century. Sadly it is now mostly in ruins, having been largely disused since the opening of the new church in 1877. The chancel and North Chapel remain intact, however, and are still sometimes used for services and concerts.

The remaining building now acts mainly as a home for an interesting collection of monuments to various generations of the Wentworth family – including Thomas Wentworth (1587), William Wentworth (1614), Thomas Wentworth (1641) and William Wentworth (1685) (the family may have had lots of money but they weren’t very good at thinking up original boys names!)

The church, which is now maintained by the Churches Conservation Trust, is normally open to visitors open most Sundays and Bank Holidays between May and September (weather permitting); it is also possible to arrange access at other times – please contact them for details. It’s well worth a look inside to view the monuments and to visit the Fitwilliam family vault accessed via a tunnel which runs out under the graveyard.

If you can’t make it to the church itself, the churchyard is fascinating in its own right. It has stones dating back to the seventeenth century, many with interesting stories attached.

One of the most unusual is that of Chow Kwang Tseay (baptised John Dennis Blonde), a native Chinaman who died in Wentwoth in 1850, aged 17. Quite what he was doing in Wentworth and who paid for his expensive burial is unclear. He is believed to have arrived from China on a ship (the Blonde) in about 1847.

You will also find the graves of John Hague and Sam Birks, followers of John Wesley who preached in the church in 1733. Sam’s son (also called Sam) is buried here too, he had used his plough horses to break up a mob in nearby Thorpe Hesley when they tried to ambush his father and the visiting Charles Wesley.
William Cooper who died in 1781 had the foresight to leave instructions on the back of his stone in case it was ever knocked over, which did in fact happen. The inscription reads “For goodness sake fix this Stone up again”. (Click on picture to enlarge).

Old Church Curiosities

Various artefacts from the Old Church are now to be found outside Wenwtworth, pictures of which we feature below…

An interesting aspect of the old church was it’s one-fingered clock which was believed to have been situated on the tower overlooking the fields to the West rather than the village itself.

The clock itself no longer exists, but we are indebted to Mrs. Jackie Ward (nee Garton) who now owns the original finger from the clock which is shown in the above photo; it is apparently 31 inches long and so must have been visible from quite a distance away.

Mrs. Ward has also provided us with this picture of the font which was formely in the Old Church and now appears to be used as a garden feature.

Can You Help?

One of our readers has asked if anyone can provide any information about the grave of John Loy of Skiers Hall in the Old Church graveyard. If anyone has any details about the life or Mr. Loy, or indeed about any aspect of Wentworth history, please contact us. All contributions acknowledged. Many thanks!

Rockingham Pottery

Tuesday, January 5th, 2010

Part of the Rockingham Pottery collection on display at Clifton Park Museum, Rotherham

The Rockingham Pottery was one of many local industries supported by the Fitzwilliam family. The pottery was based in Swinton, a few miles from Wentworth village. It was originally established by Joseph Flint in 1745 but was taken over by the Brameld family in 1806 with the backing of the 4th Earl Fitzwilliam. The Earl also stepped in to save the pottery in 1825 when it was almost made bankrupt and it was around this time that the trademark Rockingham porcelain first went into production.

The Rockingham china, with it’s distinctive Griffin crest, soon became world famous and was purchased by many of the leading nobles of the day. Sadly production was very short lived: the last major undertaking to produce a 200 piece dessert service for King William IV seemed to have been achieved at the expense of commercial viability and the pottery closed in 1842.

Because of it’s comparative rarity, Rockingham Pottery is now highly sought after and achieves excellent prices at auction. For those wanting to view the pottery, Clifton Park Museum in Rotherham has one the most extensive collections in the world, including the famous “Rhinoceros Vase” (at the time the largest single cast piece of porcelain the world) which was housed in Wentworth Woodhouse until sold by the Fitzwilliam family in 1948 to pay Death Duties.

All that remains of the Rockingham Pottery today is the massive Waterloo Kiln (named after the battle of the same name) which is located just off the B6092 near Swinton. Following the closure of the pottery the Kiln was used for some time as an isolation hospital, and then until 1951 as a private dwelling. The Kiln is now maintained by Rotherham Borough Council. The area surrounding the kiln, including the ponds formerly used to supply water for the works, has now been converted into a small nature reserve.

Wentworth Castle – Stainborough

Tuesday, January 5th, 2010

Many visitors to the area are confused by the relationship between Wentworth Woodhouse in Wentworth and the nearby Wentworth Castle at Stainborough.

The Stainborough branch of the Wentworth family is descended from Thomas Wentworth, nephew of the 1st Earl of Strafford (of the first creation).

When the 2nd Earl of Strafford died in 1695 without issue, Thomas Wentworth felt that he should have inherited the title and the Wentworth Woodhouse estate, however he was granted only the lesser title of Lord Raby and the estate passed to the 2nd Earl’s sister Anne Wentworth, then wife of the 1st Marquis of Rockingham.

The Stainborough Wentworths were somewhat aggrieved by the loss of “their” title and property and were determined to regain their rightful place in the nobility.

Thomas Wentworth Lord Raby was a rich and influential member of the diplomatic service and spent a considerable amount of money converting Stainborough Hall into “Wentworth Castle”, employing the leading Berlin architect Johannes von Bodt to create one of the most impressive Baroque fronts in the country; he was also a close adviser to Queen Anne and persuaded her to re-create the title of Earl of Strafford in his favour.

A kind of tit-for-tat building battle then took place between the two familiies which was carried on by Thomas Wentworth’s son William. The Rockinghams rebuilt the West Front of Wentworth Woodhouse in the Baroque style and then, when fashions changed, both families went on to rebuild the other sides of their houses in the new Palladian style. In the end it seems that the Rockingham family “won” managing to extend the Palladian East Front of Wentworth Woodhouse to 600 feet.

Web Link

For more information about Wentworth Castle and its gardens we would suggest that you visit the official Wentworth Castle Web Site. Visitors to the area will find that Wentworth Castle is much more accessible than Wentworth Woodhouse which is in private hands.

Wentworth Woodhouse

Wednesday, December 16th, 2009

Wentworth Woodhouse

Wentworth Woodhouse is now offering house tours, please see their new web site at www.wentworthwoodhouse.co.uk for further information.

A range of three tours is being made available initially, starting at £10 per person.

Wentworth Woodhouse on BBC TV

Antiques Roadshow will be visiting Wentworth Woodhouse on 19th September, more details on their web site here.

Introduction

The East Front of Wentworth Woodhouse, visible from the public right of way through Wentworth Park, is a magnificent structure over 600 feet in length, famous as the longest frontage of any country house in England. Unfortunately this is all the public can see of the house as it is now privately owned, however for those walking past who want to know a bit more about the history of the place we present a brief history of the building and its owners through the years.

The Exterior

What we think of as Wentworth Woodhouse is actually two houses, both largely rebuilt in the 18th century. The East Front which we see from the Park entirely obscures the second house which faces West towards the village. The Western house is the older of the two, started in around 1725 to replace an even older structure. The West Front (or “Back Front” as it is sometimes known) is less formal than the grand East Front and is built largely in brick with Baroque stone facings.

Thomas Watson-Wentworth (later Earl of Malton and Marquis of Rockingham) who built most of the house we see today, evidently became dissatisified with the West Front whilst it was being built, for he commissioned Henry Flitcroft to start work on the East Front in around 1734, even before the other side of the house was finished.

It is thought that the decision to build the much larger East Front stemmed partly from a family feud with the Stainborough branch of the Wentworth family. They were at the time extending Wentworth Castle (which you can see to the West of the M1 just past Barnsley) and the Wentworth branch of the family did not to be outdone!

The only major change to exterior of the house since it was originally put up was the addition of an extra storey to each of the wings of the East Front in around 1782. Evidently the Fitzwilliam family of the time needed more bedroom space (150 just wasn’t enough!). Also around this time the Fitzwilliams engaged the landscape architect Humphrey Repton to create the parkland we still see to the East of the house; apparently one of Repton’s main changes was to remove a hill which had stood in front of the house because this obscured the view. I’d like to see the “Ground Force” team attempt that one!

The Interior

The house is not open to the public and so the interior is rarely seen, however as this is a Grade I listed building we assume that it has not altered significantly since 1959 when it was described in great detail by the eminent architectural historian Sir Nikolaus Pevsner (see “The Buildings of England – Yorkshire, West Riding”).

The main entrance to the house is via the Pillared Hall, accessed from the East Front. This gives access to some of the ground floor rooms and, via a grand staircase, to the Marble Saloon, a 60 foot square room some 40 feet high which is the main reception room in the house.

South of here are two grand rooms named after the paintings that once hung in them: the Van Dyke room and the Whistlejacket room. Whistlejacket was the 2nd Marquis’s favourite racehorse and George Stubbs was commissioned to paint a huge portrait of the horse in 1759 (it can now be seen in the National Gallery in London); for those who can’t get see the picture you can look at Whistlejacket’s grave which is just off the path past the house near the stable block (see below).

To the north of the Marble Saloon lies another huge room, the Long Gallery. This is some 130 feet long and again once contained a huge collection of paintings and other artworks.

Stable Block

The stable block was built in 1768 by John Carr on a scale to match the house. This can easily be viewed from the public path through the park and, as you will see, the horses probably had a better standard of accommodation than most of the residents in the village at the time!

Pevsner tells us that the stables comprise 15 bays with a rusticated entrance with Tuscan columns, pediment and cupola. There is a large (no longer operational) fountain in the centre of the courtyard which can be glanced through the gates. Much of the Stable Block was used as a gymnasium when the house was used for educational purposes but now this huge building seems to be entirely unused (along with all the other more modern college buildings dotted around the park).

Lady Mabel College

From 1949 to 1974 the house was home to The Lady Mabel College of Physical Education. Named after Lady Mabel Smith (sister of the 7th Earl Fitzwilliam) the College trained female physical education teachers. The college later merged with Sheffield City Polytechnic.

Web Links

For an excellent collection of images of Wentworth Woodhouse visit the Country Life Library.

In “A Country House Revealed” Dan Cruickshank uncovers the secret history of six of Britain’s greatest private country houses, each never-before seen on television, and none open to the public – including Wentworth Woodhouse.

A book by Catherine Bailey about the history of the Fitzwilliam family and Wentworth Woodhouse is now available, & is summarised nicely in an article by The Times here. It can be purchased on line from Amazon.co.uk – click the link below for details.

A Brief History of Wentworth

Tuesday, December 1st, 2009

The history of Wentworth village is inextricably linked with the history of the great aristocratic families – the Wentworths, Watsons and Fitzwilliams – who presided over it for generations. Only recently, following the end of the Fitzwilliam family line in 1979, has the village started to lead a more independent existence.

Wentworths

The village itself dates back to at least 1066, when lands in the area were given to Adam de Newmarch and William le Flemming, later passing to the Canons of Bolton Abbey. It is not known how the Wentworth family came into the lands, but around 1300 they united by marriage with the Woodhouse family who lived outside the village on the site of what is now Wentworth Woodhouse. The Woodhouse lands were originally part of the manor of “frerehouse” which also included the sites of the modern Friars House, Friars Cottages and Boltons Yard. The combined Wentworth family went on to dominate the area for centuries, slowly acquiring more land, money and influence.

The first Wentworth family member to achieve national fame was Thomas Wentworth (b. 1593), 1st Earl of Strafford (pictured). He entered parliament and progressed rapidly through the ranks, becoming Lord President of the Council of the North and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and no doubt acquiring a lot more land and money along the way. Unfortunately he must also have acquired a lot of enemies in the House of Commons because he was tried and beheaded for treason in 1641. His remains are buried under the Old Church in Wentworth.

Watsons

The Earl’s son, William (they all seem to have been called either Thomas or William!) inherited his father’s title, but died without an heir and the estate passed to the Watson (later Watson-Wentworth) family. It was the Watson-Wentworths (who later became the Marquises of Rockingham) who built many of the grandest structures in the area, including the magnificent East Front of Wentworth Woodhouse and the Hoober Stand and Keppel’s Column follies. They also gave the village some of its first public buildings such as the Barrow school and the former windmill on Clayfields Lane. The 2nd Marquis of Rockingham even found time between the building work to become Prime Minister on two occassions. Unfortunately he didn’t find time to produce an heir and so the estate changed hands yet again.

Fitzwilliams

The Earl Fitzwilliams (or Wentworth-Fitzwilliams) took over in 1782 and were responsible for much of the early industrial development in the area, establishing numerous mines and factories in the surrounding towns and villages (not too close to their house of course!). This made the family even richer, and by the mid-nineteenth century they were reckoned to be the 6th wealthiest landowners in the country. They didn’t lose touch with the village though and gave money to establish the Mechanics Institute and the girls school (now Wentworth C of E school) for the benefit of their tenants. They also built cottages for their workers in Wentworth and Elsecar, most of which exist to this day.

The 6th Earl gave us the magnificent Holy Trinity Church (the “new” church), the 7th Earl started a factory in Sheffield which produced one of the first motor cars (the Simplex), the 8th Earl sadly died in a plane crash along with Kathleen Kennedy, sister of J. F. Kennedy, who he was seeing at the time. And so it goes on…

Present Day

The Fitzwilliam reign continued until the death of the 10th Earl in 1979, again tragically without issue. Since the death of the last Earl much of the property in the village has been managed by a trust which does an excellent job of preserving the character of the village and continues to make charitable donations for the benefit of residents. Wentworth Woodhouse is now under separate private ownership, and little is known about future plans for the building. The rest of the estate, which still has significant land holdings in the area, lives on under the stewardship of Sir Philip Naylor-Leyland.

Family Tree

Please visit our online Wentworth/Fitzwilliam Family Tree for detailed information about the Wentworth, Watson and Fitzwilliam families who dominated Wentworth Village for generations from the stately home of Wentworth Woodhouse. It brings together hundreds of individuals dating back to the reign of Henry II.

More History

The above are just edited highlights of the history of the village and estate. For more comprehensive and scholarly coverage you may wish to read Roy Young’s excellent “The Big House and The Little Village”, which you may be able to obtain from shops in the village.


Wentworth Books

A new book by Catherine Bailey about the history of the Fitzwilliam family and Wentworth Woodhouse is now available. It can be purchased on line from Amazon.co.uk – click the link below for details.